India : States And Union Territories.

India in 1951.

India in 1951

India is the Seventh largest Country in the Word with 3,287,263 square km. India is a federal union comprising 28 states and 8 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.  Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west ; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives; its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia.

Present Map of India

 

Capital :  Amaravati 
District : 13
Largest City : Visakhapatnam
Official Language : Telugu
It was formed on 1 October 1953. 
Statehood : 1 October 1953.
It is the first state to be formed with linguistic basis in India. 
It is the Seventh largest State by Area. 
It is the tenth most populous state. 
It is the second largest Coastline State.
Andhra Pradesh is also known as the “Rice Bowl ” of India because it is the largest Rice Producer State. 

History of Formation : 

In an effort to gain an independent state based on linguistic identity, and to protect the interests of the Telugu-speaking people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted to death in 1952. 

As Madras became a bone of contention, in 1949 a JVP committee report stated: “Andhra Province could be formed provided the Andhras give up their claim on the city of Madras (now Chennai).

The Telugu-speaking area of Andhra State was carved out of Madras State on 1 October 1953, with Kurnool as its capital city. 

On 1 November 1956 by States Reorganization Act Andhra Pradesh was combined with telugu-speaking Hyderabad State to form Complete State and Hyderabad was made Capital of the State.

Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh

Capital : Itanagar
District  : 25
Largest City : Itanagar
official language : English 
Arunachal Pradesh was initially a Union Territory which was carved out of Assam.
Till 1972, it was known as the North-East Frontier Agency (NEFA). 
It gained Union Territory status on 20 January 1972 and was renamed as Arunachal Pradesh.
Arunachal Pradesh was initially a Union Territory. 
Arunachal Pradesh became a full-fledged State on 20th February, 1987.
It is the 14th largest State by Area. 
It is the 24th most populous state. 

Assam

Assam

 

Capital : Dispur
District : 33
Largest City : Guwahati.
Official Language : Assamese
Additional Official Language : Bengali, Bodo
Assam became a British protectorate in 1826. Assam was separated from Bengal in 1874.
In 1912, it was reformed as Assam province under British rule.
Statehood : 26 January 1950.
It is the 16th largest State by Area. 
It is the 15th most populous state.

History of Formation :


The Assam territory was first separated from Bengal in 1874 as the ‘North-East Frontier’ non-regulation province, also known as the Assam Chief-Commissionership. 
It was incorporated into the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam in 1905 after the partition of Bengal (1905–1911) and re-established in 1912 as Assam Province .

 

Bihar

Bihar

 

Capital : Patna
District : 38
Largest City : Patna
Official Language : Hindi
Additional official Language : Urdu 
Other Languages : Bhojpuri, Mithila, Magadh.
It was Formed on 22 March 1912 by the British. 
Statehood : 26 January 1950.
It is the 12th largest State by Area. 
It is the third most populous state.

History Of Formation :

On 1 April 1912 Bihar and Orissa were separated from Bengal as Bihar and Orissa Province. 

On 1 April 1936 Bihar and Orissa became Separate Provinces.

Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh

Capital : Raipur
District : 28
Largest City : Raipur
Official Language : Hindi 
Additional official Language : Chhattisgarhi 

It was formed On 1 November 2000.
It is the 9th largest State by Area. 
It is the 17th most populous state.

History of Formation :

The Chhattisgarh State was Carved out from Madhya Pradesh on 1 November 2000.

 

Goa

Goa map
Goa

Capital : Panaji
District : 2
Largest City : Vasco da Gama
Official Language : Konkani
Additional official Language : English, Marathi. 
It was formed on 30 May 1987.
It is the Smallest State by Area. 
It is the 26th most populous state.

History of Formation :

In 1961 Indian Army invaded Goa and annexed Goa after a 36 hours battle from the Portuguese. 

The Portuguese Ruled Goa for 450 Years.  The Goa was incorporated as a Union Territory of Goa, Diu and Daman.

On 30 May 1987, Goa was declared a State.

 

Gujarat

Gujarat

Capital : Gandhinagar
District : 33
Largest City : Ahmedabad 
Official Language : Gujarati. 
Additional official Language : Hindi.
It was formed on 1 May 1960.
Statehood : 1 May 1960.
It is the largest Coastline state. 
It is the 5th largest State by Area. 
It is the 9th most populous state.

History of Formation :

After Independence Bombay Province became the Part of India. 

In 1950 Bombay was declared State. Following protests of Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, in which 107 people were killed by police, Bombay State was reorganized on linguistic lines. 

Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat following the Mahagujarat Movement. Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them.

 

Haryana

Haryana

Capital : Chandigarh 
District : 22
Largest City : Faridabad
Official Language : Hindi
Additional official Language : English,Punjabi. 
It was formed on 1 November 1966.
Statehood : 1 November 1966.
It is the 21st largest State by Area. 
It is the 18th most populous state.

History of Formation :
Haryana was separated from Punjab on the basis of language on 1 November 1966.

Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh

Capital : Shimla(Summer) Dharamshala (Winter)
District : 12
Largest City : Shimla
Official Language : Hindi 
Additional official Language : Sanskrit. 
During the British rule, Himachal Pradesh became a part of Punjab Province.
In 1950 Himachal Pradesh was declared as a Union Territory.
It was formed on 25 January 1971.
The province comprised the hill districts around Shimla and southern hill areas of the former Punjab region
Statehood : 25 January 1971.
It is the 18th largest State by Area. 
It is the 21st most populous state.

Jharkhand

Jharkhand

Capital : Ranchi
District : 24
Largest City : Jamshedpur 
Official Language : Hindi 
Additional official Language : Urdu. 
It was Formed on 15 November 2000.
Statehood :15 November 2000.
It is the 15th largest State by Area. 
It is the 14th most populous state.

History of Formation :

On 15 November 2000 Jharkhand was Separated from Bihar.

In 2000 a campaign led by the BJP for a separate state culminated with the passage of the Bihar Reorganisation Act, creating Jharkhand as a new Indian state.

 

Karnataka

Karnataka

Capital : Bangalore 
District : 30
Largest City : Bangalore 
Official Language : kannada 
Additional official Language : English. 
In the year 1956, according to States Reorganisation Act, boundaries of Indian states and territories were organized on linguistic lines and Kannada Speaking region was named Mysore State. 
On 1 November 1973, under Devaraj Urs as Chief Minister, Mysore state was renamed as Karnataka.
Statehood : 1 November 1956.
It is the 6th largest State by Area. 
It is the 8th most populous state.

Kerala

Kerala

Capital : Thiruvananthapuram
District : 14
Largest City : Kochi
Official Language : Malayalam 
Additional official Language : English,Tulu.
On 1 November 1956, according to States Reorganisation Act, boundaries of Indian states and territories were organized on linguistic lines and the Malayalam Speaking region was named Kerala State. 
Statehood : 1 November 1956.
It is the 23rd largest State by Area. 
It is the 13th most populous state.

Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh

Capital : Bhopal
District : 52
Largest City : Indore
Official Language : Hindi 
It was formed on 1 November 1956.
Statehood : 1 November 1956.
It is the Second largest State by Area. 
It is the fifth most populous state.

History of Formation :

After the independence of India, Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. 

The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. 

In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. 

Jabalpur was chosen to be the capital of the state but at the last moment, due to some political pressure, Bhopal was made the state capital.

 

Maharashtra

Maharashtra

Capital : Mumbai, Nagpur (Winter)
District : 36
Largest City : Mumbai 
Official Language : Marathi 
It Was formed on 1 May 1960.
Statehood : 1 May 1960.
It is the third largest State by Area. 
It is the Second most populous state.

History of Formation :

After Independence Bombay Province became the Part of India. 

In 1950 Bombay was declared State. Following protests of Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, in which 107 people were killed by police, Bombay State was reorganised on linguistic lines. 

Gujarati-speaking areas of Bombay State were partitioned into the state of Gujarat following the Mahagujarat Movement. Maharashtra State with Bombay as its capital was formed with the merger of Marathi-speaking areas of Bombay State, eight districts from Central Provinces and Berar, five districts from Hyderabad State, and numerous princely states enclosed between them.

 

Manipur

Manipur

Capital :  Imphal
District : 16
Largest City : Imphal
Official Language : Meitei
Additional official language : English 
Manipur became a princely state under British rule in 1891.
In 1949 Manipur became the Part of India.
In 1956 Manipur was made Union Territory. 
On 21 January 1972 Manipur became the State. 
Statehood : 21 January 1972.
It is the 23rd largest State by Area. 
It is the 23rd most populous state.

Meghalaya

Meghalaya

Capital :  Shillong
District : 11
Largest City : Shillong 
Official Language : English 
Additional official language : Khasi.
It was formed on 21 January 1972.
Statehood : 21 January 1972.
It is the 22nd largest State by Area. 
It is the 22nd most populous state

History of Formation: 
Meghalaya was formed by carving out two districts from the state of Assam on 21 January 1972.

Mizoram

Mizoram

Capital :  Aizawl
District : 11
Largest City : Aizawl
Official Language : English, Hindi, Mizo.
Mizoram Was separated from Assam. 
In 1971, the government agreed to convert the Mizo Hills into a Union Territory, which came into being as Mizoram in 1972.
It Was Declared State on 20 February 1987.
It is the 25th largest State by Area. 
It is the 27th most populous state.

Nagaland

Nagaland

Capital :  Kohima
District : 12
Largest City : Dimapur
Official Language : English.
Nagaland was Separated from the State of Assam. 
It was formed on 1 December 1963.
Statehood : 1 December 1963.
It is the 26th largest State by Area. 
It is the 25th most populous state.

Orissa

Orissa

Capital :  Bhubaneswar
District :  30
Largest City : Bhubaneswar
Official Language : Odia
On 1 April 1912, the Bihar and Orissa Province was formed. 
On 1 April 1936, Bihar and Orissa were split into separate provinces.
The English name Orissa was changed to Odisha on 4 November 2011.
Statehood : 1 April 1936.
It is the 8th largest State by Area. 
It is the 11th most populous state.

History of Formation :

On 1 April 1912 Bihar and Orissa were separated from Bengal as Bihar and Orissa Province. 

On 1 April 1936 Bihar and Orissa became Separate Provinces. 

Orissa was formed on the linguistic basis. 

 

Punjab

Punjab

Capital :  Chandigarh 
District :  22
Largest City : Ludhiana
Official Language : Punjabi 
Exact date of formation of Punjab is don’t known. 
It is the 20th largest State by Area. 
It is the 16th most populous state.

History of Formation :
The Indian State of Punjab was created in 1947, when the partition of India split the former Raj province of Punjab between India and Pakistan.

Rajasthan

Rajasthan

Capital :  Jaipur
District :  33
Largest City : Jaipur 
Official Language : Hindi 
Additional official language : English 
It was formed on 30 March 1949.
Statehood : 30 March 1949.
It is the largest State by Area. 
It is the 8th most populous state.

History of Formation :

It took seven stages to form Rajasthan as defined today. 

In March 1948 the Matsya Union consisting of Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur and Karauli was formed. Also, in March 1948 Banswara, Bundi, Dungarpur, Jhalawar, Kishangarh, Kota, Pratapgarh, Shahpura and Tonk joined the Indian union and formed a part of Rajasthan. In April 1948 Udaipur joined the state and the Maharana of Udaipur was made Rajpramukh.

In 1949 the kingdoms of Bikaner, Jodhpur, Jaisalmer and Jaipur Joined India and became the Part of Rajasthan.

Later in 1949, the United States of Matsya, comprising the former kingdoms of Bharatpur, Alwar, Karauli and Dholpur, was incorporated into Rajasthan.

On January 26, 1950, 18 states of united Rajasthan merged with Sirohi to join the state leaving Abu and Dilwara to remain a part of Greater Bombay and now Gujarat.

 

Sikkim

Sikkim

Capital :  Gangtok
District :  33
Largest City : Gangtok 
Official Language : Nepali, English.  
Additional official language : Gurung,Limbu,Mukhia,Newari ,Rai ,Tamang.
In 1975 Sikkim became a Part of India. 
Statehood : 16 May 1975.
It is the Second Smallest State by Area. 
It has the lowest population.

Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu

Capital :  Chennai 
District :  38
Largest City : Chennai 
Official Language : Tamil.  
Additional official language : English.
On 26 January 1950, it was formed as Madras State by the Government of India.
In 1956 Boundaries of the Madras State were Reorganized. 
The state was finally renamed as Tamil Nadu on 14 January 1969 by C.N. Annadurai, Chief Minister.
Statehood : 1 January 1956.
It is the 10th largest State by Area. 
It is the 6th most populous state.

Telangana

Telangana

Capital :  Hyderabad 
District :  33
Largest City : Hyderabad 
Official Language : Telugu. 
Additional official language : Urdu.
It was formed on 2 June 2014.
Statehood : 2 June 2014.
It is the 11th largest State by Area. 
It is the 12th most populous state.

History of Formation :

Telangana was separated from Andhra Pradesh. 

In 1997, the state unit of the BJP passed a resolution seeking a separate Telangana.

A new party called Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS), led by Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (KCR), was formed in April 2001 with the single-point agenda of creating a separate Telangana state with Hyderabad as its capital.

 

Tripura

Tripura

Capital :   Agartala
District :  8
Largest City : Agartala 
Official Language :  Bengali, English. 
Additional official language : Kokborok
In 1905 Tripura became part of the new province of Eastern Bengal and Assam.
After India’s independence, the princely state of Tripura was merged with the Union of India on 15 October 1949.
On November 1, 1956, it was recognized as a Union Territory.
On January 21, 1972, as per the North-East Reorganisation Act, 1971.
Statehood : 21 January 1972.
It is the 26th largest State by Area. 
It is the 22nd most populous state.

Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh

Capital :   Lucknow 
District :  75
Largest City : Kanpur
Official Language :  Hindi.
Additional official language : Urdu. 
It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950.
Statehood : 24 January 1950.
It is the 4th largest State by Area. 
It has the highest Population. 

Uttarakhand

Uttarakhand

Capital :   Dehradun (Winter), Gairsain (Summer)
District :  13
Largest City : Dehradun
Official Language :  Hindi.
Additional official language : Sanskrit. 
It was formed on 9 November 2000.
Statehood : 9 November 2000.
It is the 19th largest State by Area. 
It is the 21st most populous state.

History of Formation: 
Uttarakhand was formed by Carving out the Himalaya district of Uttar Pradesh.

West Bengal

West Bengal

Capital : Kolkata
District :  23
Largest City : Kolkata
Official Language : Bengali, Nepali. 
Additional official language : Hindi,Punjabi, Urdu,Odia, Santali.
When India gained independence in 1947, Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to India (and was named West Bengal) while the eastern part joined Pakistan as a province called East Bengal (later renamed East Pakistan, giving rise to independent Bangladesh in 1971).
Statehood : 26 January 1950.
It is the 13th largest State by Area. 
It is the 4th most populous state.

Union Territories

Andaman And Nicobar Islands

Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Capital : Port Blair
District :  3
Largest City : Port Blair 
Official Language : English, Hindi. 
Additional official language : Bengali, Tamil, Telugu,  Malayalam. 
Established : 1 November 1956.
Number of Islands : 572
It is the third largest Union Territory. 

History of Formation :
In December 1755 Danish Colonies the Islands.
In 1869 the Andaman and Nicobar Islands became a part of British India.
The Islands became a part of the Indian Union in 1950 and were declared a Union Territory in 1956.

Chandigarh

Chandigarh

Capital : Chandigarh 
District : 1
Largest City : Chandigarh 
Official Language : English, Hindi, Punjabi. 
Established : 1  November 1956.
It is the Common Capital of Haryana and Punjab.
It is the Seventh largest Union Territory. 

History of Formation :
The Chandigarh union territory was constituted on November 1, 1966, when the Indian Punjab was reorganized along linguistic lines into two new states predominantly Hindi-speaking Haryana and Punjabi speaking Punjab.

Dadra and Nagar Haveli And Daman and Diu

Dadra and Nagar Haveli And Daman and Diu

Capital : Daman
District : 3
Largest City : Daman
Official Language : English, Hindi, Gujrati. 
Additional official language : Konkani, Marathi. 
Established : 26 January 2020.
All four areas were part of Portuguese India and came under Indian administration in the mid 20th century.
It was created through the merger of the erstwhile union territories of Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu.
It is the Fifth largest Union Territory. 

Delhi

Delhi

Capital : Delhi
District : 11
Largest City : New Delhi
Capital Formation : 1911
Formation of Union Territory : 1956
Official Language : English, Hindi.
Additional official language : punjabi, Urdu. 
National Capital : New Delhi is a part of Delhi. 
It is the fourth largest Union Territory.

Jammu and Kashmir

Jammu and Kashmir

Capital : Srinagar (Summer), Jammu (Winter)
District : 20
Largest City : Srinagar 
Formation of Union Territory : 31 October 2019
Official Language : English, Urdu.
Additional official language : Dogri, Kashmiri. 
Jammu and Kashmir is the second largest Union Territory.

Ladakh

Ladakh

Ladakh

Capital : Leh (Summer), Kargil (Winter)
District : 2
Largest City : Leh
Formation of Union Territory : 31 October 2019
Official Language : English, Urdu, Ladakhi.
Additional official language : Balti,Purgi.
Ladakh is the largest Union Territory. 

Lakshadweep

Lakshadweep

Capital : Kavaratti
District : 1
Largest City : Kavaratti
Formation of Union Territory : 1 November 1956.
Official Language : English, Malayalam. 
High Court : Kerala High Court.
It is the Smallest Union Territory. 
On 1 November 1956, during the reorganization of Indian states, the Lakshadweep islands were separated from Madras and organized into a separate union territory for administrative purposes.
On 1 November 1973 the name from Laccadive, Minicoy, and Amindivi Islands changed to lakshadweep islands.

Puducherry

Puducherry

Capital : Puducherry
District : 4
Largest City : Puducherry 
The de facto transfer of the French Indian territories from French governance to the Indian union took place on 1 November 1954, and was established as the union territory of Pondicherry. 
However, the formal de jure transfer of territory agreement between France and India was signed on 16 August 1962.
Formation of Union Territory : 16 August 1962.
Official Language : English, Tamil.
Additional official language : Telugu, Malayalam. 
It is the sixth largest Union Territory. 
On November 1, 1954, the French possessions in India were de facto transferred to the Indian Union and Puducherry became a Union Territory.

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